Get off to a good start
See articles below and a graphics mini-dictionary at the bottom with the most commonly used terms.
There are many expressions in the graphics world, and professionals have a tendency to throw them around a bit without thinking about the difficulty that those without experience in production may have in translating them. We have therefore provided you with an alphabetical list of the most commonly used terms, so we don’t talk at cross purposes from the outset.
A0: 84.1 x 118.9 cm
A1: 59.4 x 84.1 cm
A2: 42 x 59.4 cm
A3: 29.7 x 42 cm
A4: 21 x 29.7 cm
A5: 14.8 x 21 cm
A6: 10.5 x 14.8 cm
Files where print runs to the edge must extend 3 mm beyond the format on all sides.
Papirets stivhed hedder i fagsprog bulk. Som tommelfingerregel har ubestrøget papir den højeste stivhed / bulk, og jo blankere / bestrøget et papir er, jo mindre stivhed har papiret.
Computer to Plate: production of printing plates directly from a computer without the use of film.
CMYK / 4 colour
Names of the four colours used in 4-colour printing: cyan, magenta, yellow and key-colour (black).
1+0: One colour on one page.
1+1: One colour on the front and back.
2+0: Two colours on one page.
2+2: Two colours on the front and back.
3+0: Three colours on one page.
3+3: Three colours on the front and back.
4+0: Four colours on one page. Usually printed in CMYK.
4+4: Four colours on the front and back. Usually printed in CMYK.
Term for a printing machine that can print 5 colours simultaneously – e.g. CMYK + 1 spot colour
Electronic altering of scanned images, e.g. in connection with colour changes and image overlays.
Scoring or creasing paper ensures that it is creased/folded neatly without splitting/cracking. This is recommended for paper over 170 g.
Electronic precision instrument for measuring discolouration, colour strength, etc.
An easy and fast alternative to offset printing. Often the best and cheapest solution for small print runs
Dots Per Inch. Digital printing requires 200 – 300 dpi and a large format. Inkjet printing and black and white copies require 100 dpi. This applies to images of 1:1 size.
All forms of print post-processing. From binding and lamination to mounting and cutting.
The mechanical process of bending or folding paper.
A colour management system translates colours using colour profiles. A profile is a mathematical description of a device’s colour space, and jobs are printed according to the CMYK colour model, whose colour space is smaller than the light-based RGB colour space viewed on the computer screen. The colours on the screen are converted to the right CMYK profile to achieve the best print result.
Large format printer also used as a UV printer for printing on materials such as cardboard, corrugated cardboard and plastic materials.
“Smoothed” paper. During production, the paper obtains a more compressed surface than uncoated paper. Note that calendered paper is not the same as coated paper.
Grammage is paper density calculated per square metre. Example of an A4 sheet. 90 g/m2 weighs approx 5.61 g (0.21 x 0.297 x 90)
Inserting staples when finishing products such as advertising circulars, booklets, brochures, etc.
File describing a specific colour conversion or a device’s technical colour properties. The profile allows you to adjust the colours as optimally as possible.
File format for high resolution photo compression.
The paper is coated with a thin layer of plastic – matte, glossy or embossed. Contributes to a nice finish and also makes the paper water and dirt repellent.
The paper is bound into a “foil pocket”. Available in several thicknesses, it protects and also provides a superior finish.
Protective varnish, which is applied to the paper and available in many different variants: Machine varnish, UV varnish, water-based varnish, etc. Several of these are available in matte, glossy, ultra matte or silk matte. Can also be applied partially: varnish on selected areas only.
Offset printing, sheet-fed and web-fed printing
Versatile printing method that permits the printing of CMYK colours, Pantone colours and various varnishes. The result is a large range of possible print media in terms of format, colour and paper selection. Suitable for larger runs as start-up costs are relatively high.
A pixel-based image resolution is measured in ppi (pixels per inch). As a rule, an offset printing image should be 300 ppi and a web image file should be 72 ppi.
Graphic work prior to printing: film work, set-up, scanning, etc.
Special colours that are brighter/more solid on, for example, letterhead – which is typically printed in two special colours. It is also cheaper to print with 2 colours versus the 4 used in CMYK. The Pantone scale also includes metallic, neon and other fluorescent colours that cannot be reproduced in CMYK.
Portable Document Format – a file that can be used by all computers and which can be generated for many different purposes.
Cutting small holes in the paper that enables detachment without tearing the paper.
The paper is folded towards the centre from both the left and right sides so that the folder opens like a gate.
Halftones are the collection of points/dots that appear when a colour shade is printed. Smaller dots and greater distance between dots brighten the colours. Halftones are measured in lines per cm or lines per inch and are an indication of the quality of the print.
Designation of the three colours used in screen displays: red, green, blue.
Term for a transportable banner that is drawn up like a roller blind. Typically 80-100 cm in width and 180-215 cm in height.
Rotary printing/heatset and coldset
Suitable for very large runs: advertising circulars, catalogues, magazines, etc. from 34 g uncoated newsprint and up to 130 g coated. Formats from around A5 up to broadsheet (e.g. how newspapers looked in the “good old days”)
Inserted in the layout so that the printer can cut precisely from larger sheets.
Trim marks are also called “cropmarks” or “cutmarks”.
Pre-mixed colour that cannot be obtained by 4-colour printing (CMYK). For example, it can be a logo colour defined as a Pantone colour (PMS). Cannot be colour-separated and requires its own printing plate on the printing press.
Colour chosen for print media that is not printed in CMYK, e.g. reflex blue and warm red.
Pattern traced on plywood or similar by a laser and carved using steel rules/knives that are able to penetrate the paper.
Newspaper format (278 x 378 mm)
Tagged Image File Format. A popular file format for pixel-based images that is smaller than an EPS file.
The size of the sheet printed in the machine.
The surface is not coated and therefore has a rougher look – also called offset paper.
Using a cutting die, cardboard is cut so that an individual design of the print medium is created by punching a hole or stamping a profile, for example.
Term for transferring files from one’s own computer to another, such as files to be submitted for production. Uploading can be done, for example, using an FTP programme.